Very occasionally, clarinets are manufactured out of silver or brass. The clarinet mouthpiece is made from a kind of hard rubber called ebonite. The keys are usually made from an alloy called German silver. This is crafted from copper, zinc, and nickel. It seems like pure silver, but doesn't tarnish. Some fine gadgets may be made with pure silver keys, and expensive models are available with gold plated keys. The key pads require cardboard and felt or leather-based. The reed is made from cane. Other constituents utilized in the clarinet are cork and wax, for lining the joints, and a metal equivalent to silver or a less expensive alloy for the ligature, the screw clip that holds the reed in place, and chrome steel for the spring mechanisms that work the keys. 5 Early clarinets were made with hand forged keys. The modern method is typically die casting.