Here I have used a piano keyboard let's say alternative notes and periods, but an analogous principle holds for the clarinet. The herbal notes the white keys on the piano keyboard are named from A via to G. These notes are shown written in the treble clef in Fig. 1. There also are sharps and flats the black keys on the piano keyboard. Sharps have a pitch one semitone higher than a certain natural note, and flats have a pitch one semitone below a definite herbal note. A semi tone is the period between one note and an adjacent note black or white on each side. Two of those semitones make up a tone. Between a undeniable herbal note and a higher occurrence of this herbal note, there are 11 semi tone periods or 5. 5 tone intervals. This interval is called an octave.