Though there are more than a dozen various modern clarinet types, the most common ones used in orchestras and bands are the B flat and A clarinets. The bass clarinet, which is much bigger than the standard and has an upwardly curved bell, is also commonly used in modern bands and orchestras. The standard clarinet contains five parts—the mouthpiece, the barrel or tuning socket, the higher or lefthand joint, lower or right hand joint, and the bell. A thin, flattened, in particular shaped piece of cane called a reed needs to be inserted in the mouthpiece before the tool can be played. Different notes are produced as the player moves his palms over metal keys which open and shut air holes in the clarinet's body. An tool similar to the clarinet—a cylindrical cane tube played with a cane reed—was in use in Egypt as early as 3000 B. C. Instruments of this kind were used across the Near East into modern times, and other clarinet prototypes were played in Spain, parts of Eastern Europe, and in Sardinia. A folk device present in Wales during the eighteenth century, called the hompipe or pibgorn, was very corresponding to Greek and Middle Eastern cane single reed contraptions, but it was made of bone or of elder wood. Through the Middle Ages and up to the seventeenth century such single reed devices were played across Europe, but they were almost exclusively peasant or folk instruments. The modern clarinet seems to were originated by a Nuremberg tool maker, Johann Cristoph Denner, sometime around 1690.