The bass clarinet, which is much bigger than the common and has an upwardly curved bell, is also frequently utilized in modern bands and orchestras. The normal clarinet contains five parts—the mouthpiece, the barrel or tuning socket, the upper or lefthand joint, lower or right hand joint, and the bell. A thin, flattened, mainly shaped piece of cane called a reed needs to be inserted in the mouthpiece before the tool can be played. Different notes are produced as the player moves his fingers over metal keys which open and close air holes in the clarinet's body. An tool akin to the clarinet—a cylindrical cane tube played with a cane reed—was in use in Egypt as early as 3000 b. c. Instruments of this type were used across the Near East into modern times, and other clarinet prototypes were played in Spain, parts of Eastern Europe, and in Sardinia. A folk tool found in Wales during the eighteenth century, called the hompipe or pibgorn, was very similar to Greek and Middle Eastern cane single reed contraptions, but it was made up of bone or of elder wood. Through the Middle Ages and up to the seventeenth century such single reed contraptions were played across Europe, but they were almost exclusively peasant or folk instruments. The modern clarinet seems to have been originated by a Nuremberg device maker, Johann Cristoph Denner, sometime around 1690. Denner was a celebrated company of recorders, flutes, oboes, and bassoons.